By: Kian Mokhtari
And now it’s the French’s turn!!
Ten French NATO troops were killed in fierce fighting following a Taliban attack near the Afghan capital Kabul. They were killed during two days of fighting in Sarobi district, about 50 kilometers east of the Afghan capital.
On July 13, nine US soldiers were killed in an attack on a base in northeastern Kunar province. The US “abandoned” the garrison following the pummeling they got and for once there were no reports of Taliban casualties; meaning the Taliban must have gained control of the field during battle.
A British soldier serving under US-led coalition forces was killed on August 18 when his patrol came under attack in southern Afghanistan.
The incidents come at a time of heightened security to confront any possible insurgent attacks on the 89th Afghan Independence Day. Afghanistan celebrated the 19th of August to commemorate the Treaty of Rawalpindi in 1919 that granted the country independence from British rule.
There have never been any long-term foreign winners in Afghan conflicts –ever.
The entire idea of moving forces to Afghanistan and setting up numerous garrisons has been tried, tested and failed dozens of times over. Bloody-nosed invaders have been sent packing in a terrible hurry because the entire process of invasion, occupation and foreign consolidation of the country is faulty.
There are just so many historical precedences that you’d think there simply cannot be another invader foolish enough to want to take the risk.
For instance in December 1838 a British army was assembled in India for an Afghan campaign. By April 1839, after a difficult advance under constant harassment from tribal fighters it reached Kabul. In 1842, Following a horrendously disastrous stay 4,500 troops (British and Indian) and 12,000 camp-followers and irregular fighters retreated from Kabul to march to Jalalabad; continuously battered by the local tribes along the way the only European survivor, Dr Brydon, reached Jalalabad. Then Jalalabad and Kandahar garrisons under attack.
The British money pit campaign of Afghanistan kept Britain busy until 1919 and eventually Britain had to let go leading to the treaty of Rawalpindi.
Many British commentators wrote at the time that military occupation of another nation did not necessarily mean holding the reigns of power over that nation and bemoaned the brainlessness of Imperial advisors.
So what on earth are the Europeans and Americans doing back in Afghanistan?
Well, the “great game” is back on after a sixty-year hiatus of the Cold War. The Anglo-Afghan wars (1838-1919) were about marking the boundaries of British sphere of Imperial rule over India, curbing Russian influence in the region and neutralizing Iran.
Iran came off worst in the campaign because it was lumbered with playboy kings at the time and lost Herat as well as its regional Imperial status.
Dragged down by domestic affairs, Iran gave up its Imperial ambitions following the aforementioned 19th century campaign.
However the West never took its beady eyes off control over Afghanistan. So Taliban, Al-Qaeda or otherwise, a Western-led invasion of Afghanistan would have been inevitable really; and 9/11 became the convenient excuse for a return to Afghanistan of the English-speaking world’s Imperialistic ambitions and troops. This time however the Germans and the French joined in the bravado and another fine mess is being made of Afghanistan through naked Western ambition.
They say British forces never retreat; they withdraw. It is quite clear that this time it is common sense that has wholly abandoned the Western invaders.
Advocates of Democracy?
By: Kian Mokhtari
Mohammad Mosaddeq was born in 1882 in Tehran to an Ashtiani Bakhtiari finance minister, Mirza Hideyatu'llah Khan and a Qajar princess, Shahzadeh Malika Taj Khanum.
Mossadeq received his Bachelor of Arts and Masters in (International) Law from University of Paris (Sorbonne) before pursuing higher education in Switzerland. He received his Doctor of Philosophy in 1914 following a Bachelor of Economics in 1916. He also taught at the University of Tehran before beginning his political career.
In 1920, after being self-exiled to Switzerland in protest at the Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1919, he was invited by the new Persian Prime Minister, Hassan Pirnia, to become his Minister of Justice. He was later appointed Foreign Minister in the government of Moshir-ed-Dowleh in June 1923. He was re-elected to the Majlis in the same year and voted against the selection of the then Prime Minister Reza Khan as the new Shah of Iran.
After living as a political outcast throughout Reza Khan's monarchy, Mossaddeq was once again elected to parliament in 1944. This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli Iran or Iran Patriotic Front. He aimed throughout his turbulent life to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company’s (AIOC) operations in Iran.
Having been appointed premier on April 28 1951, Mossaddeq explained his nationalization policy in his speech of June 21, 1951:
"…With the oil revenues we could meet our entire budget and combat poverty, disease, and backwardness among our people…by the elimination of the power of the British company, we would also eliminate corruption and intrigue, by means of which the internal affairs of our country have been influenced. Once this tutelage has ceased, Iran will have achieved its economic and political independence. The Iranian state prefers to take over the production of petroleum itself. The company should do nothing else but return its property to the rightful owners. The nationalization law provide that 25% of the net profits on oil be set aside to meet all the legitimate claims of the company for compensation… It has been asserted abroad that Iran intends to expel the foreign oil experts from the country and then shut down oil installations. Not only is this allegation absurd; it is utter invention…"
In October 1952, Mossaddeq declared that Britain was "an enemy", and cut all diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom. In November and December 1952, British intelligence officials suggested to American "intelligence" that the prime minister should be ousted. The new US administration under Dwight D. Eisenhower and the British government under Winston Churchill agreed to work together toward Mossaddeq’s removal. In March 1953, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles directed the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which was headed by his younger brother Allen Dulles, to draft plans to overthrow Mossaddeq.
The pro-monarchy forces, led by retired army general and former Minister of Interior in Mosaddeq’s cabinet, Fazlollah Zahedi and street thugs like Shaban Jafari (also known as Shaban "the Brainless") gained the upper hand on 18 August 1953. Dr Mohammad Mossadeq was unceremoniously removed from an office he had been democratically elected to by Anglo-American "28 Mordad 1332" coup -Operation Ajax, after its CIA cryptonym.
Mossaddeq was imprisoned by the former Shah of Iran for three years and subsequently put under house arrest until his death.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi returned from exile to the throne assisted by CIA and MI6 and squandered whatever economic advantages had been gained through nationalization of oil in Iran.
Today, Iran is once again at a crucial crossroads to make up for its future requirements through technological, economic and political progression that requires time. And once again the old enemies are back to defame our nation, to provoke and interfere with our political path; to tear apart the very fabric of our society and to create cracks in our history's consistency so they can replace our words and truths with falsities of their own, subjugate our proud land and slander our cultural heritage.
And those of us familiar with the jest and fancy of our historical foes can do little than humbly and wholeheartedly forewarn of the consequences.
We beg the Almighty's guidance in our journey.